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The Light House of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC). It has been estimated to have been at least 100 meters (330 ft) in overall height. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world.
The lighthouse was severely damaged by three earthquakes between 956 and 1323 AD and became an abandoned ruin. It was the third-longest surviving ancient wonder, after the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the extant Great Pyramid of Giza, surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site.
The shen-ring is represented as a double strand of rope, the ends of which are folded in such a way that a closed ring is formed with a knot on the underside. The shen-ring appears as a hieroglyph, as a protective sign on stelae or in tombs, and as an amulet. It was used as a magical aid; during the 3rd and 4th Dynasties it was worn around the neck for protection.
Because the circle had no end, the shen-ring was regarded as the symbol of infinity, and when it encircled the sun, as the symbol of the eternity of the universe. The notion of encirclement then led to an expansion in meaning - protection - added to that of infinity.
The shen-ring was particularly associated with Horus the falcon and Nekhbet the vulture, who hold the circle above the king to offer him eternal protection. Royal names were written in an elongated version of the shen-ring, the cartouche.
The Pompey's Pillar
Pompey's Pillar is a Roman triumphal column in the city of Alexandria. It is the largest of its type. In fact, it constructed outside of the imperial capitals of Rome and Constantinople.
Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria is the only which known free-standing column in Roman Egypt. Moreover, it not composed of drums. It indeed is one of the largest ancient monoliths. Moreover, it is also one of the largest monolithic columns which ever erected. The monolithic column shaft measures 20.46 m in height with a diameter of 2.71 m at its base. The weight of the single piece of red Aswan granite estimated at 285 ton. Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria is 26.85 m high including its base and capital.
It dates back to the time of Pompey. The Corinthian column actually built in 297 AC. It commemorate the victory of Roman emperor Diocletian over an Alexandrian revolt. The Emperor Diocletian erected this memorial column. Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria erected in honor of the Roman Emperor, as a sign of gratitude. A serious revolt in the city took place. Diocletian came himself, ordering the city to besieged. After 8 months of resistance, the city finally surrendered. As a result of the siege, there was famine in the city. The Emperor ordered that a part of the corn, which sent to Rome, given to the people of Alexandria. He exempted them from paying taxes during these hard times. For that they erected, in his honor the Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria.
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